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Paris K., Sindoni D., Di Sabato T. Close Approaches of Debris to LARES Satellite During Its First Four Years of Operation
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 4, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.4.24976

Since its launch in February 2012, the LAser RElativity Satellite (LARES) of the Italian Space Agency experienced four close approaches with space debris. LARES orbits at an altitude of 1450 km, in a region where the density of space debris has a peak. However, the probability of an impact with a debris during the operational life of the satellite was reasonably low. The analysis of the close approaches identified three of the objects, that are from two peculiar population of objects. This paper discusses the problem of space debris in low orbit, the approaches occurred with LARES, and some possible scenarios related to space regulations and space law in case of an impact.

Popova S.M. Luxembourg’s SpaceResources.lu initiative and possible consequences for regulation of the global market on space exploration
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 4, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.4.25135

The object of this research is the changes in the national space policy of countries and regulation of the global market of space exploration. The importance of monitoring these changes is justiied by the possibility of emergence of unexpected events (“black swan”), capable of bringing changes to the current rules of the game, disruption in the balance of the competitive positions and reformation of the global space economy upon new terms. The subject of this research is the development of the Luxembourg initiative SpaceResources.lu associated with creation favorable “ecosystem” within the framework of state-private partnership for involvement into national economy companies that specialize in cutting-edge special exploration. Special attention is given to the analysis of Luxembourg law from July 20, 2017 on exploration and use of space resources, which represents the irst European bill that establishes on the national level guarantees of rights to ownership of resources extracted from space. A conclusion is made that emergence of national legislative bills that violate the current rules of the game on the space exploration market are to a certain extent unavoidable, since the tempo of inter-national lawmaking lags behind the demand of real sector of space economy for new legal solutions that would promote its successful development.

Lozhkovoy P.N. Status of information of state territory: international law issues
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 4, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.4.24426

his article examines the international law aspects of remote probing of Earth from space. It is noted that the international law holds the generally accepted principle of territorial supremacy of state, but there is no legal status on information about the territory. The author believes that information about the territory carries the same status as the ter-ritory itself and that the state has the same full rights with regards to the information as it has over its territory. Attention is given to examination of the issue of control over the propriety in form of information. It is summarized that the state has legal right to restrict spread of information about itself and such right, being a complex one, gives the state ability to control the information. A claim is made that the existing contradictions between the countries can be resolved through signing international treaties with participation of interested parties.

Uvarov V.B. Increasing the eficiency of the use of the ISS: modern approaches towards commercialization of space experiments.
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 4, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.4.25023

This work is devoted to studying the conditions for eficient development of the space infrastructure as a com-ponent the new space economy. The subject of the analysis is the place and role played by the manned orbital complexes, including the International Space Stations (ISS), in creation of technological innovations that can also be implemented in the “earth” economy. Special attention is given to the analysis of current approaches towards commercialization of the results of scientiic research conducted on the ISS, as well as assessment of prospects of transfer of modern foreign organizational and administrational solutions in this area to the Russian space industry. On the example of the space experiment “Organaut”, prepared for the interests of a private company, the author demonstrates the practical possibility of transfer of modern in-ternational technological solutions on expediting the tempos of expansion of the space infrastructure into Russian practice. A conclusion is made on the need to reduce the bureaucratic cycle of preparation of space experiments and reasonableness of implementation of special institution of development outside the perimeter GK “Roskosmos”.

Serga E.V. On the nature of redshifts in the galactic spectrums
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 4, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.4.25139

The subject of this research is the phenomenon of redshifts in galactic spectrums. Modern natural science as-sociates this effect with the Doppler shift as the result of the expending universe. Doppler’s interpretation of the redshifts is based on the perception of the cosmic space (cosmic vacuum) as emptiness. However, such interpretation is outdated in light of modern scientiic knowledge, which allows us to observe cosmic (physical) vacuum as a material environment with speciic characteristics. The key prerequisite for this work is the position on the unity of the vacuum territory in physics of the microworld and space physics. The proposed model explains the effect of redshifts in galactic spectrums as one of the vacuum effects explained by the interaction of the photons with the vacuum as a physical environment. Such approach al-lows, using new scientiic data, returning to the earlier rejected hypothesis of the Russian and Soviet astrophysicist Aristarkh Belopolsky on loss of energy of photons in their movement through space proposed by him in 1929.

Lozhkovoy P.N. International responsibility for remote sensing of the Earth: legal realia
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 3, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.3.24431

Remote sensing principles, as well as the 1967 Treaty on Outer Space, require the state to be internationally responsible for space activities. The author analyzes the current international legal instruments regulating this sphere. The author supposes that the peculiarities of international space law in general are applicable to the responsibility for remote sensing. The responsibility covers both space activities and its consequences on the Earth. The author studies the issues of property responsibility of the subjects of international law and analyzes the practice of the bodies of international justice in this sphere. The research methodology includes the dialectical method of cognition. The author also uses general scientific methods, such as comparison and analysis. Besides, the author uses specific methods of jurisprudence (comparative-legal and technical-legal). The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that the author outlines the essential need to broadly interpret the provisions of international space law determining the nature of both international and civil responsibility for such space activities. The author emphasizes poor specification of the concept of damage caused by remote sensing of the Earth in the doctrine of international law. 

Yanik A.A. Space programs and the problems of estimating societal impact of the Big Science projects
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 3, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.3.24860

The research subject is the activities of innovatively developed countries in the development of theoretical models, metrics and mechanisms helping to estimate societal impact of large-scale research projects (Big Science) as, consequently, manage the current and long-term impact of the development of science and innovations on socio-economic progress. Special attention is given to the need to estimate societal impact of expensive space programs. The purpose of the research is to determine the experience that could be used in Russia and to elaborate recommendations for its using. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general theoretical and empirical methods and interdisciplinary approaches. Though the positive impact of the Big Science projects on social development seems obvious, the newest scientific works don’t provide any evidence based proofs of this thesis. In the context of increased public attention to the quality of national resources management, it becomes extremely important to develop scientific instruments helping analyze the presence of interdependence between the increase of expenditures for large scale scientific projects and the growth of innovativeness of changes. In the Russian Federation, this sphere is at the initial stage of formation. It seems reasonable to activate such projects within the Scientific and Technological Development Strategy of the Russian Federation for 2017 – 2019. 

In' Ch., Tsyan Ch. The Capturing of Space Debris with a Spaceborne Multi-fingered Gripper
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 3, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.3.24667

With the massive launching of spacecraft, more and more space debris are making the low Earth orbit (LEO) much more crowded which seriously affects the normal flight of other spacecrafts. Space debris removal has become a very urgent issue concerned by numerous countries. In this paper, using SwissCube as a target, the capturing of space debris with a spaceborne four-fingered gripper was studied in order to obtain the key factors that affect the capturing effect. The contact state between the gripper fingers and SwissCube was described using a defined contact matrix. The law of momentum conservation was used to model the motion variations of the gripper and SwissCube before and after the capturing process. A zero-gravity simulation environment was built using ADAMS software. Two typical kinds of capturing processes were simulated considering different stiffness of fingers and different friction conditions between fingers and SwissCube. Comparisons between results obtained with the law of momentum conservation and those from ADAMS simulation show that the theoretical calculations and simulation results are consistent. In addition, through analyzing the capturing process, a valuable finding was obtained that the contact friction and finger flexibility are two very important factors that affect the capturing result.

Uiler R. Agriculture for Space: People and Countries Paving the Way
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 3, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.3.24840

Agricultural systems for space have been discussed since the works of Tsiolkovsky in the early 20th century. Central to the concept is the use of photosynthetic organisms and light to generate oxygen and food. Research in the area started in 1950s and 60s through the works of Jack Myers and others, who studied algae for O2 production and CO2 removal for the US Air Force and NASA. Studies on algal production and controlled environment agriculture were also carried out by Russian researchers in Krasnoyarsk, beginning in 1960s. NASA initiated its CELSS Program ca. 1980 with testing focused on controlled environment production of some plants. Related tests with humans and crops were conducted at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in the 1990s. The European Space Agency MELiSSA Project began in the late 1980s and pursued ecological approaches for providing gas, water and materials recycling for space life support, and later expanded to include plant testing.As a result of these and other (Japan, Canada, China) studies for space agriculture novel technologies and findings have been produced. The theme of agriculture for space has contributed to, and benefited from terrestrial, controlled environment agriculture and will continue doing so into the future.

Serga E.V. On the perfect vacuum theory: transmission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves
Published in journal "Space research", ¹ 3, 2017
DOI: 10.7256/.2017.3.24579

The research subject is the space (perfect) vacuum as a material medium. The research task is search for the grounds to the development of a consistent scientific explanation of the set of observed vacuum effects in microphysics and macrophysics – a unified vacuum theory. The presented vacuum theory is the continuation of the views of vacuum as a material medium formed in the works by I. Newton, M. Faraday, J.C. Maxwell and H.R. Hertz with account for the recent scientific research. The key premises of the study are the ideas about the symmetry of gravitational interactions as a physical reality and about the unity of the vacuum theory in microphysics and cosmophysics. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general scientific methods and methodologies (generalization, analysis, synthesis), the methods of formal logic, hypothetico-deductive method and modeling. Special attention is given to the explanation of the mechanism of transmission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in vacuum. To develop the theoretical model of vacuum and explain its application using these processes, the author accepts the effect of occurrence of “particle-antiparticle” pairs in vacuum as a root idea. Theoretically determined spectra of electromagnetic waves in various diapasons conform with the observed values. The author formulates the new theoretical definition of possible gravitation speed which, according to the calculations, is about 1018 speed of light. 

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