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Since its launch in February 2012, the LAser RElativity Satellite (LARES) of the Italian Space Agency experienced four close approaches with space debris. LARES orbits at an altitude of 1450 km, in a region where the density of space debris has a peak. However, the probability of an impact with a debris during the operational life of the satellite was reasonably low. The analysis of the close approaches identified three of the objects, that are from two peculiar population of objects. This paper discusses the problem of space debris in low orbit, the approaches occurred with LARES, and some possible scenarios related to space regulations and space law in case of an impact.
This article analyzes the interpretation of historical cognition in semiotics of the culture of Y. M. Lotman. Special attention is given to the semiotic interpretation of the notions of “historical fact” and “historical event”. The author determines the place of Lotman’s semiotics in the context of classical (positivistic) and nonclassical (linguistically and hermeneutically oriented) philosophy of history and theory of historical writing, as well as clarifies the link between the interpretation of cultural communication in Lotman’s concept and semiotic aspect of historical cognition. The research reveals the similarities and differences of Lotman’s semiotics of history with the modern post-culturalist philosophy of history formulated in the works of H. White, F. Ankersmit, and C. Köllner. During the course of this study, the author applied the comparative method, problem-thematic way of analysis and presentation of material. It is demonstrated that the suggested by Lotman interpretation of the key notions of the historical writing theory (historical fact, historical process, historical reality) overcomes the extremes of objectivism and relativism in understanding of the historical past. The process of historical cognition is described in Lotman’s works in accordance with the model of cultural communication, in other words, as a dialogue between history and modernity that suggests the existence of common language between the culture of the past, which comprises the object of historical interest, and the culture of the present, the part and bearer of which is a historian.
The object of this research is the changes in the national space policy of countries and regulation of the global market of space exploration. The importance of monitoring these changes is justiied by the possibility of emergence of unexpected events (“black swan”), capable of bringing changes to the current rules of the game, disruption in the balance of the competitive positions and reformation of the global space economy upon new terms. The subject of this research is the development of the Luxembourg initiative SpaceResources.lu associated with creation favorable “ecosystem” within the framework of state-private partnership for involvement into national economy companies that specialize in cutting-edge special exploration. Special attention is given to the analysis of Luxembourg law from July 20, 2017 on exploration and use of space resources, which represents the irst European bill that establishes on the national level guarantees of rights to ownership of resources extracted from space. A conclusion is made that emergence of national legislative bills that violate the current rules of the game on the space exploration market are to a certain extent unavoidable, since the tempo of inter-national lawmaking lags behind the demand of real sector of space economy for new legal solutions that would promote its successful development.
The research subject is the peculiarities of government control in the labour sphere in the companies of the residents of the free port of Vladivostok. The specificity of the legal regime of the free port of Vladivostok, characterized by decreasing the redundant control of the government bodies and the possibility of employing migrants without quotas and limitations, defines the risk of employer’s abuses in the labour sphere. The purpose of the research is to define contradictions in the international regulation of the activities of labour inspections and the legislation on the free port of Vladivostok, and to develop their solutions. To acquire the most reliable scientific results, the author uses general scientific methods (system-structural, formal-logical and hermeneutical) and specific legal methods (comparative-legal and formal-legal). These methods are used as a complex. The author concludes that the legislation about the free port of Vladivostok doesn’t conform to international obligations of the Russian Federation in the sphere of control over labour inspections. The revealed contradictions can hamper the performance of its functions by a labour inspection in the companies of the residents of the free port of Vladivostok. The author offers two ways two solve this problem. In the first case it is necessary to make changes in the corresponding subordinate acts. Otherwise, law enforcing subjects should ignore the provisions of the legislation on the free port of Vladivostok contradicting the Labour Inspection Convention.
his article examines the international law aspects of remote probing of Earth from space. It is noted that the international law holds the generally accepted principle of territorial supremacy of state, but there is no legal status on information about the territory. The author believes that information about the territory carries the same status as the ter-ritory itself and that the state has the same full rights with regards to the information as it has over its territory. Attention is given to examination of the issue of control over the propriety in form of information. It is summarized that the state has legal right to restrict spread of information about itself and such right, being a complex one, gives the state ability to control the information. A claim is made that the existing contradictions between the countries can be resolved through signing international treaties with participation of interested parties.
The subject of this research is the content and direction of the modern cultural processes that lead to the qualitative changes of local cultures, as well as the global cultural space as a whole. The goal of this work consists in determination of trends and prospects of the modern cultural dynamics. The authors examine the essence and content of the processes of globalization and unification of cultural space, virtualization and simulation of sociocultural reality, formation of quasi-society on the basis of Internet communication, features and peculiarities of functionality of the new “galactic of the social-network communication”. Methodology of the study includes the general development trends of the modern culture; its near and future prospect are analyzes from the perspective of the philosophy of life, symbolic interactionism and system-structural approach. A number of conclusions was made during the course of this work: with regards to modernity, can be acknowledged the homogenization of cultural landscape, emergence of the generalized cultural field as a result of globalization – a planetary trend of cultural dynamics. A positive impact of these processes can be observed from the perspective of the philosophy of life of Georg Simmel, according to which the flow of life sweeps away the created by it, but having become confined cultural forms, and leans towards the new, previously unknown. The signs of formation of that new detects another important and noticeable direction in transformation of the modern culture – virtualization and concurrent simulation of the entire sociocultural reality that grasp the economy, politics, social sphere, cultural and leisure, and mass communication. Virtual reality gradually obtains the status of primacy in relation to reality; and the manipulations with the symbols of things substitute the actions with the things themselves. The third trend in cultural dynamics that has powerfully asserted itself is the formation and rapid development of the “galactic of the social-network communication” that generates the quasi-society.
This work is devoted to studying the conditions for eficient development of the space infrastructure as a com-ponent the new space economy. The subject of the analysis is the place and role played by the manned orbital complexes, including the International Space Stations (ISS), in creation of technological innovations that can also be implemented in the “earth” economy. Special attention is given to the analysis of current approaches towards commercialization of the results of scientiic research conducted on the ISS, as well as assessment of prospects of transfer of modern foreign organizational and administrational solutions in this area to the Russian space industry. On the example of the space experiment “Organaut”, prepared for the interests of a private company, the author demonstrates the practical possibility of transfer of modern in-ternational technological solutions on expediting the tempos of expansion of the space infrastructure into Russian practice. A conclusion is made on the need to reduce the bureaucratic cycle of preparation of space experiments and reasonableness of implementation of special institution of development outside the perimeter GK “Roskosmos”.
The research subject is the current regulations of the Tax code of the Russian Federation, the federal law “On the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation”, the governmental decree “On the procedure of financial and budgetary control performed by the Federal Treasury”, the decree of the Treasury of the Russian Federation “On the establishment of the Standard of external government audit (control). General rules of control”, established by the decree of the board of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation establishing the procedure of realization, formalization and appeal against non-regulatory acts. Legal acts, regulating financial control in the financial and budgetary sphere, don’t form the institution of appeal against non-regulatory acts as such. The research methodology is based on the modern achievements of epistemology. The author uses theoretical and general philosophical methods (dialectics, the system method, analysis, synthesis, analogy, deduction and modeling), and traditional methods of jurisprudence. The author concludes that the institution of appeal against non-regulatory acts hasn’t formed in the financial and budgetary sphere of financial control (unlike the situation in the tax sphere). This circumstance is determined by the fact that subjects, responsible for financial control in the financial and budgetary sphere, adopt standards regulating the process of performing financial control and financial audit. The institution of appeal against non-regulatory acts is formulated in the Tax Code ensuring the necessary level of protection of the officials of the controlled objects. Consequently, it is necessary to adopt the Federal Law “On financial control” which should formalize the institution of appeal against the results of financial control guaranteeing the protection of the officials of the controlled objects during control activities.
The subject of this research is the phenomenon of redshifts in galactic spectrums. Modern natural science as-sociates this effect with the Doppler shift as the result of the expending universe. Doppler’s interpretation of the redshifts is based on the perception of the cosmic space (cosmic vacuum) as emptiness. However, such interpretation is outdated in light of modern scientiic knowledge, which allows us to observe cosmic (physical) vacuum as a material environment with speciic characteristics. The key prerequisite for this work is the position on the unity of the vacuum territory in physics of the microworld and space physics. The proposed model explains the effect of redshifts in galactic spectrums as one of the vacuum effects explained by the interaction of the photons with the vacuum as a physical environment. Such approach al-lows, using new scientiic data, returning to the earlier rejected hypothesis of the Russian and Soviet astrophysicist Aristarkh Belopolsky on loss of energy of photons in their movement through space proposed by him in 1929.
The research object is the set of legal relations occurring in the process of using and functioning of new legal instruments of regulation of economic relations via a special administrative and legal regime on the territory of the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. The research subject is the system of statutory instruments regulating the mechanism if introduction and using of a special administrative and legal regime of a free economic zone on the territory of the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol, and regulating the state control over its implementation. The author uses comparative-legal analysis to estimate different legislative provisions and scientific and methodological aids in the process of studying the specificity of special administrative and legal regimes of economic activity. Based on the assumption that the legislation, regulating economic relations, should promote economic growth and structural transformation of the Russian economy, the author analyzes and systematizes the new legal instruments guaranteeing effective realization of regional and national policy in the business sphere in the regions of their using. The author demonstrates that the measures of regulation of a special legal regime in the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol serve as the key auxiliary instrument necessary for the formation of the economic space of the created free economic zone and oriented to the attraction of foreign investments.